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Posts Tagged ‘Sqoop’

Sqoop Mysql Data Import

In Sqoop, We can import data from MySQL and write to HDFS. It basically utilizes Mapper that opens up a pipe to mysqldump and pulls data directly. If you look at the following MySQLDumpMapper, it creates CopyingAsyncSink to process the MySQLDump stream via the reader thread, CopyingStreamThread. The thread reads data from mysqldump and cleans up any extra header/characters before writing to HDFS.

On the other hand, to export data from HDFS back to MySQL, it uses MySQLExportMapper that starts a mysqlimport process and uses that to export rows from HDFS to a MySQL database at high speed. Basically, it creates FIFO, a named pipe (using mknod –mode=0) to interface with mysqlimport behind the scene. A BufferedOutputStream is used to write bytes straight to mysqlimport process via the above named pipe, which is basically can be thought as a file.


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 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
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 * distributed with this work for additional information
 * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
 * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
 * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
 * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
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package org.apache.sqoop.mapreduce;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.nio.CharBuffer;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.NullWritable;
import org.apache.sqoop.util.AsyncSink;
import org.apache.sqoop.util.JdbcUrl;
import org.apache.sqoop.util.PerfCounters;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.lib.DelimiterSet;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.lib.FieldFormatter;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.lib.RecordParser;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.manager.MySQLUtils;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.util.ErrorableAsyncSink;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.util.ErrorableThread;
import com.cloudera.sqoop.util.LoggingAsyncSink;

/**
 * Mapper that opens up a pipe to mysqldump and pulls data directly.
 */
public class MySQLDumpMapper
    extends SqoopMapper {

  public static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(
      MySQLDumpMapper.class.getName());

  private Configuration conf;

  // AsyncSinks used to import data from mysqldump directly into HDFS.

  /**
   * Copies data directly from mysqldump into HDFS, after stripping some
   * header and footer characters that are attached to each line in mysqldump.
   */
  public static class CopyingAsyncSink extends ErrorableAsyncSink {
    private final MySQLDumpMapper.Context context;
    private final PerfCounters counters;

    protected CopyingAsyncSink(final MySQLDumpMapper.Context context,
        final PerfCounters ctrs) {
      this.context = context;
      this.counters = ctrs;
    }

    public void processStream(InputStream is) {
      child = new CopyingStreamThread(is, context, counters);
      child.start();
    }

    private static class CopyingStreamThread extends ErrorableThread {
      public static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(
          CopyingStreamThread.class.getName());

      private final MySQLDumpMapper.Context context;
      private final InputStream stream;
      private final PerfCounters counters;

      CopyingStreamThread(final InputStream is,
          final Context c, final PerfCounters ctrs) {
        this.context = c;
        this.stream = is;
        this.counters = ctrs;
      }

      public void run() {
        BufferedReader r = null;

        try {
          r = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(this.stream));

          // Actually do the read/write transfer loop here.
          int preambleLen = -1; // set to this for "undefined"
          while (true) {
            String inLine = r.readLine();
            if (null == inLine) {
              break; // EOF.
            }

            if (inLine.trim().length() == 0 || inLine.startsWith("--")) {
              continue; // comments and empty lines are ignored
            }

            // this line is of the form "INSERT .. VALUES ( actual value text
            // );" strip the leading preamble up to the '(' and the trailing
            // ');'.
            if (preambleLen == -1) {
              // we haven't determined how long the preamble is. It's constant
              // across all lines, so just figure this out once.
              String recordStartMark = "VALUES (";
              preambleLen = inLine.indexOf(recordStartMark)
                  + recordStartMark.length();
            }

            // chop off the leading and trailing text as we write the
            // output to HDFS.
            int len = inLine.length() - 2 - preambleLen;
            context.write(inLine.substring(preambleLen, inLine.length() - 2)
                + "\n", null);
            counters.addBytes(1 + len);
          }
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
          LOG.error("IOException reading from mysqldump: " + ioe.toString());
          // flag this error so we get an error status back in the caller.
          setError();
        } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
          LOG.error("InterruptedException reading from mysqldump: "
              + ie.toString());
          // flag this error so we get an error status back in the caller.
          setError();
        } finally {
          if (null != r) {
            try {
              r.close();
            } catch (IOException ioe) {
              LOG.info("Error closing FIFO stream: " + ioe.toString());
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }


  /**
   * The ReparsingAsyncSink will instantiate a RecordParser to read mysqldump's
   * output, and re-emit the text in the user's specified output format.
   */
  public static class ReparsingAsyncSink extends ErrorableAsyncSink {
    private final MySQLDumpMapper.Context context;
    private final Configuration conf;
    private final PerfCounters counters;

    protected ReparsingAsyncSink(final MySQLDumpMapper.Context c,
        final Configuration conf, final PerfCounters ctrs) {
      this.context = c;
      this.conf = conf;
      this.counters = ctrs;
    }

    public void processStream(InputStream is) {
      child = new ReparsingStreamThread(is, context, conf, counters);
      child.start();
    }

    private static class ReparsingStreamThread extends ErrorableThread {
      public static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(
          ReparsingStreamThread.class.getName());

      private final MySQLDumpMapper.Context context;
      private final Configuration conf;
      private final InputStream stream;
      private final PerfCounters counters;

      ReparsingStreamThread(final InputStream is,
          final MySQLDumpMapper.Context c, Configuration conf,
          final PerfCounters ctrs) {
        this.context = c;
        this.conf = conf;
        this.stream = is;
        this.counters = ctrs;
      }

      private static final char MYSQL_FIELD_DELIM = ',';
      private static final char MYSQL_RECORD_DELIM = '\n';
      private static final char MYSQL_ENCLOSE_CHAR = '\'';
      private static final char MYSQL_ESCAPE_CHAR = '\\';
      private static final boolean MYSQL_ENCLOSE_REQUIRED = false;

      private static final RecordParser MYSQLDUMP_PARSER;

      static {
        // build a record parser for mysqldump's format
        MYSQLDUMP_PARSER = new RecordParser(DelimiterSet.MYSQL_DELIMITERS);
      }

      public void run() {
        BufferedReader r = null;

        try {
          r = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(this.stream));

          // Configure the output with the user's delimiters.
          char outputFieldDelim = (char) conf.getInt(
              MySQLUtils.OUTPUT_FIELD_DELIM_KEY,
              DelimiterSet.NULL_CHAR);
          String outputFieldDelimStr = "" + outputFieldDelim;
          char outputRecordDelim = (char) conf.getInt(
              MySQLUtils.OUTPUT_RECORD_DELIM_KEY,
              DelimiterSet.NULL_CHAR);
          String outputRecordDelimStr = "" + outputRecordDelim;
          char outputEnclose = (char) conf.getInt(
              MySQLUtils.OUTPUT_ENCLOSED_BY_KEY,
              DelimiterSet.NULL_CHAR);
          char outputEscape = (char) conf.getInt(
              MySQLUtils.OUTPUT_ESCAPED_BY_KEY,
              DelimiterSet.NULL_CHAR);
          boolean outputEncloseRequired = conf.getBoolean(
              MySQLUtils.OUTPUT_ENCLOSE_REQUIRED_KEY, false);

          DelimiterSet delimiters = new DelimiterSet(
             outputFieldDelim,
             outputRecordDelim,
             outputEnclose,
             outputEscape,
             outputEncloseRequired);

          // Actually do the read/write transfer loop here.
          int preambleLen = -1; // set to this for "undefined"
          while (true) {
            String inLine = r.readLine();
            if (null == inLine) {
              break; // EOF.
            }

            if (inLine.trim().length() == 0 || inLine.startsWith("--")) {
              continue; // comments and empty lines are ignored
            }

            // this line is of the form "INSERT .. VALUES ( actual value text
            // );" strip the leading preamble up to the '(' and the trailing
            // ');'.
            if (preambleLen == -1) {
              // we haven't determined how long the preamble is. It's constant
              // across all lines, so just figure this out once.
              String recordStartMark = "VALUES (";
              preambleLen = inLine.indexOf(recordStartMark)
                  + recordStartMark.length();
            }

            // Wrap the input string in a char buffer that ignores the leading
            // and trailing text.
            CharBuffer charbuf = CharBuffer.wrap(inLine, preambleLen,
                inLine.length() - 2);

            // Pass this along to the parser
            List fields = null;
            try {
              fields = MYSQLDUMP_PARSER.parseRecord(charbuf);
            } catch (RecordParser.ParseError pe) {
              LOG.warn("ParseError reading from mysqldump: "
                  + pe.toString() + "; record skipped");
              continue; // Skip emitting this row.
            }

            // For all of the output fields, emit them using the delimiters
            // the user chooses.
            boolean first = true;
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            int recordLen = 1; // for the delimiter.
            for (String field : fields) {
              if (!first) {
                sb.append(outputFieldDelimStr);
              } else {
                first = false;
              }

              String fieldStr = FieldFormatter.escapeAndEnclose(field,
                  delimiters);
              sb.append(fieldStr);
              recordLen += fieldStr.length();
            }

            sb.append(outputRecordDelimStr);
            context.write(sb.toString(), null);
            counters.addBytes(recordLen);
          }
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
          LOG.error("IOException reading from mysqldump: " + ioe.toString());
          // flag this error so the parent can handle it appropriately.
          setError();
        } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
          LOG.error("InterruptedException reading from mysqldump: "
              + ie.toString());
          // flag this error so we get an error status back in the caller.
          setError();
        } finally {
          if (null != r) {
            try {
              r.close();
            } catch (IOException ioe) {
              LOG.info("Error closing FIFO stream: " + ioe.toString());
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

  // TODO(aaron): Refactor this method to be much shorter.
  // CHECKSTYLE:OFF
  /**
   * Import the table into HDFS by using mysqldump to pull out the data from
   * the database and upload the files directly to HDFS.
   */
  public void map(String splitConditions, NullWritable val, Context context)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException {

    LOG.info("Beginning mysqldump fast path import");

    ArrayList args = new ArrayList();
    String tableName = conf.get(MySQLUtils.TABLE_NAME_KEY);

    // We need to parse the connect string URI to determine the database name.
    // Using java.net.URL directly on the connect string will fail because
    // Java doesn't respect arbitrary JDBC-based schemes. So we chop off the
    // scheme (everything before '://') and replace it with 'http', which we
    // know will work.
    String connectString = conf.get(MySQLUtils.CONNECT_STRING_KEY);
    String databaseName = JdbcUrl.getDatabaseName(connectString);
    String hostname = JdbcUrl.getHostName(connectString);
    int port = JdbcUrl.getPort(connectString);

    if (null == databaseName) {
      throw new IOException("Could not determine database name");
    }

    LOG.info("Performing import of table " + tableName + " from database "
        + databaseName);

    args.add(MySQLUtils.MYSQL_DUMP_CMD); // requires that this is on the path.

    String password = conf.get(MySQLUtils.PASSWORD_KEY);
    String passwordFile = null;

    Process p = null;
    AsyncSink sink = null;
    AsyncSink errSink = null;
    PerfCounters counters = new PerfCounters();
    try {
      // --defaults-file must be the first argument.
      if (null != password && password.length() > 0) {
        passwordFile = MySQLUtils.writePasswordFile(conf);
        args.add("--defaults-file=" + passwordFile);
      }

      // Don't use the --where="" version because spaces in it can
      // confuse Java, and adding in surrounding quotes confuses Java as well.
      String whereClause = conf.get(MySQLUtils.WHERE_CLAUSE_KEY, "(1=1)")
          + " AND (" + splitConditions + ")";
      args.add("-w");
      args.add(whereClause);

      args.add("--host=" + hostname);
      if (-1 != port) {
        args.add("--port=" + Integer.toString(port));
      }
      args.add("--skip-opt");
      args.add("--compact");
      args.add("--no-create-db");
      args.add("--no-create-info");
      args.add("--quick"); // no buffering
      args.add("--single-transaction");

      String username = conf.get(MySQLUtils.USERNAME_KEY);
      if (null != username) {
        args.add("--user=" + username);
      }

      // If the user supplied extra args, add them here.
      String [] extra = conf.getStrings(MySQLUtils.EXTRA_ARGS_KEY);
      if (null != extra) {
        for (String arg : extra) {
          args.add(arg);
        }
      }

      args.add(databaseName);
      args.add(tableName);

      // begin the import in an external process.
      LOG.debug("Starting mysqldump with arguments:");
      for (String arg : args) {
        LOG.debug("  " + arg);
      }

      // Actually start the mysqldump.
      p = Runtime.getRuntime().exec(args.toArray(new String[0]));

      // read from the stdout pipe into the HDFS writer.
      InputStream is = p.getInputStream();

      if (MySQLUtils.outputDelimsAreMySQL(conf)) {
        LOG.debug("Output delimiters conform to mysqldump; "
            + "using straight copy");
        sink = new CopyingAsyncSink(context, counters);
      } else {
        LOG.debug("User-specified delimiters; using reparsing import");
        LOG.info("Converting data to use specified delimiters.");
        LOG.info("(For the fastest possible import, use");
        LOG.info("--mysql-delimiters to specify the same field");
        LOG.info("delimiters as are used by mysqldump.)");
        sink = new ReparsingAsyncSink(context, conf, counters);
      }

      // Start an async thread to read and upload the whole stream.
      counters.startClock();
      sink.processStream(is);

      // Start an async thread to send stderr to log4j.
      errSink = new LoggingAsyncSink(LOG);
      errSink.processStream(p.getErrorStream());
    } finally {

      // block until the process is done.
      int result = 0;
      if (null != p) {
        while (true) {
          try {
            result = p.waitFor();
          } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
            // interrupted; loop around.
            continue;
          }

          break;
        }
      }

      // Remove the password file.
      if (null != passwordFile) {
        if (!new File(passwordFile).delete()) {
          LOG.error("Could not remove mysql password file " + passwordFile);
          LOG.error("You should remove this file to protect your credentials.");
        }
      }

      // block until the stream sink is done too.
      int streamResult = 0;
      if (null != sink) {
        while (true) {
          try {
            streamResult = sink.join();
          } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
            // interrupted; loop around.
            continue;
          }

          break;
        }
      }

      // Try to wait for stderr to finish, but regard any errors as advisory.
      if (null != errSink) {
        try {
          if (0 != errSink.join()) {
            LOG.info("Encountered exception reading stderr stream");
          }
        } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
          LOG.info("Thread interrupted waiting for stderr to complete: "
              + ie.toString());
        }
      }

      LOG.info("Transfer loop complete.");

      if (0 != result) {
        throw new IOException("mysqldump terminated with status "
            + Integer.toString(result));
      }

      if (0 != streamResult) {
        throw new IOException("Encountered exception in stream sink");
      }

      counters.stopClock();
      LOG.info("Transferred " + counters.toString());
    }
  }
  // CHECKSTYLE:ON

  @Override
  protected void setup(Context context)
    throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    super.setup(context);
    this.conf = context.getConfiguration();
  }
}

Categories: Sqoop Tags: ,